Definitions of some terms used in the project
  • Foto GlossaryCaptive breeding is the process of breeding animals in controlled environments within well-defined settings,  Captive breeding programs facilitate biodiversity and may save species from extinction.
  • Conservation translocation: is the intentional movement and release of a living organism where the primary objective is a conservation benefit: this will usually comprise improving the conservation status of the focal species locally or globally, and/or restoring natural ecosystem functions or processes.
  • Conservation introduction is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range. Two types of conservation introduction are recognised:
    a. Assisted colonization is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to avoid extinction of populations of the focal species.
    b. Ecological replacement is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to perform a specific ecological function.
  • Conservation means a series of measures required to maintain or restore the natural habitats and the populations of species of wild fauna and flora at a favourable status natural habitats means terrestrial or aquatic areas distinguished by geographic, abiotic and biotic features, whether entirely natural or semi-natural.
  • The conservation status will be taken as "favourable" when:
    - population dynamics data on the species concerned indicate that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats, and:
    - the natural range of the species is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future, and:
    - there is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain its populations on a long-term basis.
  • Habitat of a species means an environment defined by specific abiotic and biotic factors, in which the species lives at any stage of its biological cycle. 
  • Natura 2000 is a network of core breeding and resting sites for rare and threatened species, and some rare natural habitat types which are protected in their own right. It stretches across all 28 EU countries, both on land and at sea. The aim of the network is to ensure the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats, listed under both the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive. 
  • Natural habitat types of Community interest means those which: 
    (i) are in danger of disappearance in their natural range; or
    (ii) have a small natural range following their regression or by reason of their intrinsically restricted area; or
    (iii) present outstanding examples of typical characteristics of one or more of the five following biogeographical regions: Alpine, Atlantic, Continental, Macaronesian and Mediterranean. Such habitats are listed or may be listed in Annex I Habitat Directive.
  • Priority species means species referred to in (g) (i) for the conservation of which the Community has particular responsibility in view of the proportion of their natural range which falls within the territory referred to in Article 2; these priority species are indicated by an asterisk (*) in Annex II.
    (i) conservation status of a species means the sum of the influences acting on the species concerned that may affect the long-term distribution and abundance of its populations.
  •  Population restoration:  is any conservation translocation to within indigenous range, and comprises two activities:
    A. Reinforcement is the intentional movement and release of an  organism into an existing population  of conspecifics.
    B. Reintroduction is the intentional  movement and release of an organism inside its indigenous range from which  it has disappeared.
  •  Site means a geographically defined area whose extent is clearly delineated. 
  • Site of Community importance means a site which, in the biogeographical region or regions to which is belongs, contributes significantly to the maintenance or restoration at a favourable conservation status of a natural habitat type in Annex I or of a species in Annex II Habitat Directive and may also contribute significantly to the coherence of Natura 2000  and/or contributes significantly to the maintenance of biological diversity within the biogeographic region or regions concerned. For animal species ranging over wide areas, sites of Community importance shall correspond to the places within the natural range of such species which present the physical or biological factors essential to their life and reproduction.
  • Species of Community interest means species which are: 
    (i) endangered, except those species whose natural range is marginal in that territory and which are not endangered or vulnerable in the western palearctic region; or 
    (ii) vulnerable, i.e. believed likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue operating; or 
    (iii) rare, i.e. with small populations that are not at present endangered or vulnerable, but are at risk. The species are located within restricted geographical areas or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range; or 
    (iv) endemic and requiring particular attention by reason of the specific nature of their habitat and/or the potential impact of their exploitation on their habitat and/or the potential impact of their exploitation on their conservation status.
    Such species are listed or may be listed in Annex II and/or Annex IV or V Habitat Directive;
  •  Translocation:  is the human-mediated movement of living organisms from one area, with release in another.



IUCN/SSC (2013).  Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations. Version 1.0. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission,  viiii + 57 pp

Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.


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